Preliminary credit loss estimates in Freddie multifamily
admin | October 1, 2020
This document is intended for institutional investors and is not subject to all of the independence and disclosure standards applicable to debt research reports prepared for retail investors.
The level of forbearance in Freddie Mac’s K-series and small balance loan programs has stabilized over the past few months, with very few new loans entering forbearance, a reasonable percentage of loans curing forbearance, and most loans continuing to perform either in extended forbearance or as they have entered into repayment. However, K-series loans in forbearance already have much stronger credit performance, with much lower delinquency rates and higher cure rates, than FRESB loans. This early performance difference is carried forward into preliminary projections of eventual losses, which have the most consequence for mezzanine and subordinate debt investors.
Preliminary projections of credit losses range from 0% to 8% for both K-series and FRESB deals. However, the average projected loss across the 72 forbearance-impacted FRESB deals is 2.4%, while the average projected loss across 157 K-series deals is 0.5%. Moreover, only 4 K-series deals have projected losses above 3.0% of outstanding collateral.
Early difference in delinquencies
The K-series program continues to have stronger credit performance in this COVID environment than the small balance program. The K-series has lower percentage of loans that ever entered forbearance, 2.0% of FHMS loans versus 11.2% of FRESB loans (Exhibit 1). Overall 2.8% of Freddie multifamily loans entered forbearance due to COVID-19. Loan balances in forbearance were overweight student and healthcare properties in Freddie K-series.
Exhibit 1: Comparison of forbearance across FHMS and FRESB shelves
A larger percentage of K-series loans have either cured (8.9%) or are performing in forbearance (85.2%), compared to FRESB loans (6.4% cured and 78.7% performing, respectively). In fact, of the FRESB loans that entered forbearance at any time, 14.9% of those are currently in some stage of delinquency or default, though the bulk of them are one payment late. Of the loans that entered forbearance, only 5.8% of those in K-series are currently either in some stage of delinquency or default (Exhibit 2).
Exhibit 2: Comparison of payment status of FHMS and FRESB loans in forbearance
Based on the stability in the forbearance data, it’s possible to make preliminary estimates of potential credit losses in Freddie multifamily on a deal by deal basis. Because the two populations of loans have different forbearance profiles, the loss projections use separate sets of assumptions, though the methodology is the same.
K-series deals with the greatest projected losses are shown in Exhibit 3.
- Projected default rates are shown for each category of payment status (as of 9/28/2020). Loans that are not in forbearance and loans that have cured are assumed to have 0% default rates.
- Loans already in default or 90+ days delinquent have a 100% default rate. Loans that are still performing but in forbearance have a 20% probability of default.
- The assumed loss severity is 40%, compared to a historical average of 30%. Loss severities are expected to be higher for loans in forbearance due to the missed accrued payments, and loss severities rise generally in times of credit crisis.
- Projected losses = Sum of projected default rate * severity of loss * % of deal in that payment status bucket
Exhibit 3: Projected credit losses for COVID-impacted K-series deals
It’s worth pointing out that those top 3 K-series deals with very high percentages of loans in forbearance are specialized large loan (KL) and seniors housing (KS) deals. The FHMS KL1E deal has a single loan, and that loan is in forbearance. The projected loss of 8% is irrelevant, as the actual loss will most likely either be 0% because the loan cures, or it will be equal to the loss severity rate of the loan if it defaults. The seniors housing deals can have portfolios of properties where the loans are taken out by the same borrower. In that circumstance its also likely that either none of the loans will default or all of them will. Specialized deal structures in particular require deeper dive analysis of the collateral.
Loss projections for FRESB deals (Exhibit 4) use higher default rates and loss severities due to their weaker performance so far.
Exhibit 4: Projected credit losses for COVID-impacted FRESB deals
The projected default rates for each status bucket and the loss severity rate used in this analysis are very conservative. Anyone who wants to change the default rates and loss severities, and re-calculate projected losses is encouraged do so. This workbook is available in Excel and includes complete deal lists for both FHMS and FRESB. Please reach out to myself of your sales coverage.